is chlorine a gas

This fact sheet is based on the most current information. Your email address will not be published. Pulmonary edema may be delayed and, therefore, patients should be monitored for up to 24 hours following severe inhalation exposures. The health effects resulting from most chlorine exposures begin within seconds to minutes. Chlorine is a yellow-green gas at room temperature. Is Amazon actually giving you the best price? Montvale, NJ: Thomson/Physicians’ Desk Reference, 2002. Public Health Service: Atlanta, GA.http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/tfacts172.html, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Chlorine is commonly pressurized and cooled for storage and shipment as an amber-colored liquid. It is used as an intermediate in the synthesis of many chemicals, including polyvinylchloride (PVC), pesticides, and household cleaning products. Chlorine gas has a greater density than air, so it tends to settle near the ground. Medical Management Guidelines for Chlorine. 2002. This reactivity leads to its usage as one of the most common industrial chemicals manufactured in the United States, and worldwide. ), Chemical Terrorism Wall Chart (PDF, 97KB, 1pg. At atmospheric pressure and room temperature, elemental chlorine is a gas. Aside from industrial exposure to chlorine, one very common method of chlorine exposure is the mixture of household bleach with other cleaning agents containing acids or ammonia. Low level exposures to chlorine in air will cause eye/skin/airway irritation, sore throat and cough. It may be updated as new information becomes available. If released, it turns back into a gas that spreads rapidly near the ground. Development of pulmonary edema after exposure to chlorine can be delayed for several hours. It is also used in the bleaching of paper and textiles. This leads to the production of hydrochloric acid and hypochlorous acid, which together act as an eye and lung irritant, corroding tissue. ), Physicians’ Desk Reference Guide to Biological and Chemical Warfare Response, 1st ed. Eye/Dermal Contact: Low level exposures to chlorine gas will cause eye and skin irritation. Some of the chemical/physical properties of chlorine include: Chlorine has a variety of uses. A copy of the The Facts About Chlorine (Technical Information) is available in Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF, 63 KB, 3pg.). Chlorine is used in industry and in household cleaning products. It is a chemical element belongs to the halogen group with the symbol Cl. The deliberate use of chlorine gas in war was introduced in France in 1915 by the German Army, and was devastating since the troops did not have gas masks. After a series of anthrax attacks in the United States, this gas was used to disinfect the government office buildings and mail that were contaminated with the anthrax biological agent. One use of chlorine dioxide has been to treat the aftermath of terrorist attacks. Severe exposures may result in noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, which may be delayed for several hours. 2003. Chlorine is highly soluble in water and binds to hypochloric acid (HClO) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) with moisture. Like chlorine, chlorine dioxide is used to disinfect drinking water. Because chlorine is a gas at room temperature, exposure occurs via inhalation. Chlorine's odor provides adequate early warning of its presence, but also causes olfactory fatigue or adaptation, reducing awareness of one's prolonged exposure at low concentrations. ), http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/MHMI/mmg172.html, http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/agentlistchem.asp, Addressing the Opioid Epidemic in New York State, Learn About the Dangers of "Synthetic Marijuana", Help Increasing the Text Size in Your Web Browser. In addition, the decomposition of chlorine dioxide can release chlorine gas. In addition, they may be exposed to higher levels than adults in the same location because of their shorter height and the higher levels of chlorine gas that may be found nearer the ground. It is also a highly toxic gas. Its use was supplanted later in the war by poison gases that had different modes of action. Inhalation: Most chlorine exposures occur via inhalation. 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The density of chlorine gas is approximately 2.5 times greater than air, which will cause it to initially remain near the ground in areas with little air movement. 48-49). The electrolysis of a sodium chloride solution (brine), known as the Chloralkali process, can be used to produce chlorine. It is important to maintain ventilation and oxygenation, monitor arterial blood gases and/or pulse oximetry, and consider positive airway pressure as a treatment option. Public Health Emergency Preparedness and Response Sheets. Note to reader: This fact sheet is intended to provide general awareness and education on a specific chemical agent. (pp. However, ingestion of chlorine dissolved in water (e.g., sodium hypochlorite or household bleach) will cause corrosive tissue damage of the gastrointestinal tract. Amazon Doesn't Want You to Know About This Plugin. It is yellowish-green and has the characteristic smell of bleach. Elemental chlorine has the chemical formula of Cl2 and is a member of the halogen group of elements. There is no antidote for exposure to this gas, so rapid treatment is paramount. Compressed liquid chlorine touch can cause skin and eyes to get frostbite. At atmospheric pressure and room temperature, elemental chlorine is a gas. It is also used in cleaning products, including household bleach which is chlorine dissolved in water. Your email address will not be published. More recently, chlorine bombs have been used in the Iraq War. The most common use of chlorine in wastewater treatment is for disinfection. This can produce toxic gas and leads to many poison control center visits. It is produced commercially by electrolysis of sodium chloride brine. In addition to chlorine gas, ammonia gas and chloramines can also be produced. It is used to disinfect water and is part of the sanitation process for sewage and industrial waste. During the production of paper and cloth, chlorine is used as a bleaching agent. Used in odor control and in the control of filamentous organisms in the activated sludge process. For information on preparedness and response (e.g., for first responders and emergency medical personnel), please refer to the following Department resources: Chlorine (Cl2) is among the ten highest volume chemicals manufactured in the United States.

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